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Can I Take a Loan from my IRA?

A reader writes in, asking:

“A friend recently told me that he took a loan from his IRA so he could take money out for a short time without having to pay penalty. I had never heard of that, so I called Vanguard and asked about it. They said that only 401k accounts have loans, not IRAs. Is that true? Was my friend wrong?”

The Vanguard representative is correct that IRA accounts do not have loan provisions, whereas many 401(k) plans do have such an option. (For more on 401(k) loans, see this MarketWatch article from Elizabeth O’Brien.)

Perhaps your friend was talking about the ability to “borrow” from an IRA by using the 60-day rollover provision.

To back up a step, there are two ways to move money from one IRA to another:

  1. Via a direct “trustee-to-trustee transfer,” in which you never have possession of the money, as it goes directly from one financial institution to the other, and
  2. Via a “60-day rollover.”

With a 60-day rollover, the first financial institution sends the money to you, and as long as you deposit an equal amount of money into an IRA within 60 days from the day you receive the distribution, it will be treated as if the distribution did not occur.

The 60-day rollover option exists so that you can move money from one retirement account provider to another. But it can also be used as a sort of short-term “IRA loan” mechanism, because it’s possible to simply deposit the appropriate amount of money back into the same account (rather than into an IRA with a different financial institution).

There is, however, one very important point to be aware of: You can only do one such 60-day rollover per year. So if you have executed such a rollover within the last year, you cannot “borrow” from your IRA in this manner, because you would not be able to put the money back into an IRA. (That is, the distribution would simply count as a normal distribution, potentially subject to the 10% penalty.) Similarly, if you do “borrow” from your IRA in this manner, you won’t be able to do so again within the next year, nor would you be able to do a normal 60-day IRA-to-IRA rollover during that period.

Of note, the one-per-year limit does not apply to:

  • Roth conversions (i.e., rollovers from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA),
  • Direct trustee-to-trustee transfers, or
  • Rollovers involving an employer-sponsored plan (e.g., from a 401(k) to an IRA or vice versa).

Also, the one-per-year limit is no longer one rollover per IRA per year as it used to be, but rather one rollover per year regardless of how many IRAs you have.

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