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How to Research a Tax Question

A reader writes in asking:

“I read in one of your books that publications from the IRS don’t have any legal authority. What exactly do you mean by that? And second, if not IRS publications, where should we turn we want to know the definitive answer to how a particular part of the tax code works?”

Like most articles on the IRS website, IRS publications can be excellent for the purpose of gaining a general understanding of a given topic. They’re written in relatively plain language and, as you would expect, the information contained in them is usually an accurate representation of the applicable law.

However, because IRS publications do not carry any legal authority, if they say something that’s contrary to the actual law, it’s the actual law that matters, not what’s in the IRS publication or article. Said yet another way, IRS publications can be wrong. So if you ever want to be really, really sure about something when it comes to taxes, you’ll want to look for a more authoritative source.

And where should we turn if we want to know the definitive answer about a particular part of the tax code? Well, to the tax code. Read the law itself.

The Internal Revenue Code (IRC) is the actual body of law that contains the rules that make up the federal income tax, payroll taxes, estate and gift taxes, and so on. The language it uses is not exactly intended for a general audience, but when you want a definitive answer on a federal tax topic, the IRC is, without question, the first place to look.

How to Find the Relevant Code Section

My favorite place to reference the Internal Revenue Code is Cornell University Law School’s website. But that doesn’t mean that I’m perusing through the thousands of pages of tax law on the Cornell website, to try to find the answer to a question. I just use Google, like I do when searching for anything else.

For instance, if I can’t remember which IRC section gives information about health savings accounts, I would Google:

  • IRC section health savings accounts

And IRC §223 comes up immediately. Easy peasy.

Admittedly though, reading the Code itself takes practice. You’ll often end up with multiple tabs open at once, as one section refers to another. My tip would just be to read slowly and be patient with yourself. You will have to read things multiple times.

Other Authoritative Sources of Tax Information

In addition to the law itself, there are other authoritative sources of guidance from the Treasury department.

Treasury regulations are the Treasury Department’s interpretation of the Internal Revenue Code. They are necessary because the IRC sometimes leaves many questions unanswered with regard to how the law should actually be applied. There are multiple types of Treasury regulations, and the distinctions are important.

  • Final regulations are binding on the IRS — meaning you can rely on them.
  • Temporary regulations are also binding until superseded by another regulation.
  • Proposed regulations are not binding, but they can still be useful for getting an idea of the IRS’s viewpoint on a given topic.

Again, my favorite place to read the regulations is on the Cornell website.

Revenue rulings are an official form of guidance issued by the IRS explaining how the law would be applied to a specific set of facts.

Private letter rulings are akin to revenue rulings in that they show how the IRS would apply the law to a specific set of facts. But there’s one big difference: private letter rulings are only binding on the IRS with respect to the taxpayer who requested the ruling, so other taxpayers cannot rely on them as legal precedent. That said, like proposed regulations, private letter rulings can still be useful for getting an idea of the IRS’s view on a particular matter.

Finally, federal courts’ rulings about tax matters (e.g, opinions issued by the U.S. Tax Court) are a source of legal precedent.

Frankly though, it’s uncommon that I find myself reading revenue rulings or private letter rulings. And it’s extremely rare that I actually find myself looking at court cases. The overwhelming majority of tax questions that people ask me (and which I find myself asking) can be answered without having to look outside of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations. And frankly, if you are faced with a situation which you are confident is not addressed in the law or in the regulations, that’s a good time to bring in a tax professional anyway.

Other Helpful Sources

And there are all sorts of other sources, which while having no authority can still be very helpful. IRS publications fall in this category. At roughly a similar level of credibility as IRS publications are articles in a trade publication, such as the Journal of Accountancy.

After that, the next step down (which I still find to be extremely accurate, in general) is what I would describe as “article by a tax attorney or CPA on his/her firm’s website” (even if you’ve never heard of this person).

The next step down would be an article in, for example, WSJ/Forbes/NYT. While these publications are of course reliable sources in general, I put them below the sources above. The article written by the CPA or tax attorney is generally going to be more reliable than the article written by somebody else, using the CPA or tax attorney as a source. I would put the Bogleheads wiki approximately at this level.

Finally, just ahead of “posts by your neighbor on Facebook,” we have Investopedia. Please don’t rely on it. (I’m calling out Investopedia specifically because it’s so pervasive in search engine results. It’s helpful when, for example, you want a simple explanation of a topic, and it’s perfectly fine if that explanation only turns out to be 85% correct. But in a context where you’re about to make a significant financial decision and the details matter, it’s not an appropriate source.)

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"

My Tax Preparer Just Raised Her Fees — What Should I do?

It’s tax season, so as you might imagine I’m seeing an increase in tax-related questions from readers. But the most common tax-related questions I’m seeing have nothing to do with tax rules or tax planning. Instead, it’s these:

  • My tax guy just told me he’s going to be charging about 40% more this year for our return, relative to what he charged for the last several years. What should I do?
  • My tax preparer told me her price is increasing to [whatever dollar amount]. Is that reasonable for [a particular level of return complexity]?
  • My CPA’s hourly rate just increased to $250. That seems insane. Do CPAs really make $10,000 per week during tax season?*

As a CPA who works in the tax field — but who does not do any tax preparation other than our own return every year — I have something of a front-row seat to watch what’s currently going on in the tax prep industry. Why are these price increases happening? There’s a good reason.

The first and most obvious point is simply that we’ve had a lot of overall inflation. Per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, prices were about 19% higher as of the end of 2023 than they were at the start of 2020. So if your tax preparer simply wants to have the same standard of living, they probably need to be charging somewhere in the range of 20-30% more than they were a few years ago. (There has also been a tremendous amount of tax legislation in the last few years, which means that the work of keeping skills up to date and preparing returns is somewhat more, per return, than it used to be.)

But there’s more going on than that.

Per a recent CPA Trendlines survey, 42% of accounting firms are turning away work (i.e., the incoming inquiries exceed their capacity). And per a 2023 AICPA survey, 62% of accounting firms are currently culling clients.

Broadly speaking, there simply aren’t enough accountants right now to do all of the work that clients want done.

Per ZipRecruiter, the national average salary for an entry level accountant is $54,749. By contrast, per the same source, the national average salary for an entry level software developer is $100,265. Imagine that you’re an 18 year old college freshman, with a general interest in personal finance. If you think you’d make a good accountant, I’ll bet that you probably think you’d make a good software developer also. And if you have an interest in personal finance, would you rather study a finance-related field, or have much better personal finances? Accounting isn’t a “calling” sort of career where people will do it regardless of the compensation level. So it’s not particularly surprising that the percentage decrease in new accounting graduates is greater than the percentage decrease in overall college graduates.

And, as with most fields, there are a lot of people leaving every year as Boomers move into retirement. And so there are staffing shortages.

Point being, at the current price (whether we’re talking about price per tax return prepared, price per billable hour of a tax preparer’s time, or annual salary for tax preparers), the quantity demanded is significantly greater than the quantity supplied.

And if you’ve ever had a microeconomics class, you know what happens next when that occurs: prices go up. Suppliers eventually realize they can raise prices and still sell as many units as they have the capacity to provide (whether that’s hours of their time or returns prepared).

And that’s what’s happening.

There are tons of small accounting firms, so it will take time for this change to permeate the entire industry. So if you want to shop around, there’s a good chance you can find somebody operating in a low cost of living area who still charges a very low price. But, in general, you can bet that the prices for professional tax preparation will rise significantly over the next few/several years.

*This one in particular makes me laugh a bit. No CPA who works 40 hours per week is making 40x their hourly rate per week. Even with an excess of demand, that’s simply now how it works, because a fair bit of time has to be spent on assorted non-billable activities. For example, per the same 2023 AICPA survey mentioned above, an hourly billable rate of $204 (which was the average for people with 8-10 years experience) equated to an average annual compensation of $105,662 — or $2,032/week (i.e., 10x their hourly billable rate).

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"

2024 Tax Brackets, Standard Deduction, and Other Changes

The IRS recently published the annual inflation updates for 2024. If you have questions about a particular amount that I do not mention here, you can likely find it in the official IRS announcements:

Single 2024 Tax Brackets

Taxable Income
Tax Bracket:
$0-$11,600 10%
$11,600-$47,150 12%
$47,150-$100,525 22%
$100,525-$191,950 24%
$191,950-$243,725 32%
$243,725-$609,350 35%
$609,350+ 37%

 

Married Filing Jointly 2024 Tax Brackets

Taxable Income
Tax Bracket:
$0-$23,200 10%
$23,200-$94,300 12%
$94,300-$201,050 22%
$201,050-$383,900 24%
$383,900-$487,450 32%
$487,450-$731,200 35%
$731,200+ 37%

 

Head of Household 2024 Tax Brackets

Taxable Income
Tax Bracket:
$0-$16,550 10%
$16,550-$63,100 12%
$63,100-$100,500 22%
$100,500-$191,950 24%
$191,950-$243,700 32%
$243,700-$609,350 35%
$609,350+ 37%

 

Married Filing Separately 2024 Tax Brackets

Taxable Income
Marginal Tax Rate:
$0-$11,600 10%
$11,600-$47,150 12%
$47,150-$100,525 22%
$100,525-$191,950 24%
$191,950-$243,725 32%
$243,725-$365,600 35%
$365,600+ 37%

 

Standard Deduction Amounts

The 2024 standard deduction amounts are as follows:

  • Single or married filing separately: $14,600
  • Married filing jointly: $29,200
  • Head of household: $21,900

The additional standard deduction for people who have reached age 65 (or who are blind) is $1,550 for each married taxpayer or $1,950 for unmarried taxpayers.

IRA Contribution Limits

The contribution limit for Roth IRA and traditional IRA accounts is increased to $7,000.

The catch-up contribution limit for people age 50 is still $1,000.

401(k), 403(b), 457(b) Contribution Limits

The salary deferral limit for 401(k) and other similar plans is increased to $23,000.

The catch-up contribution limit for 401(k) and other similar plans for people age 50 and over remains at $7,500.

The maximum possible contribution for defined contribution plans (e.g., for a self-employed person with a sufficiently high income contributing to a solo 401(k)) is increased to $69,000.

Health Savings Account Contribution Limits

For 2024, the maximum HSA contribution for somebody with self-only coverage under a high deductible health plan is $4,150. The limit for somebody with family coverage under such a plan is $8,300.

The HSA catch-up contribution limit for people age 55 and over is not inflation adjusted, so it remains at $1,000.

Capital Gains and Qualified Dividends

For 2024, long-term capital gains and qualified dividends face the following tax rates:

  • 0% tax rate if they fall below $94,050 of taxable income if married filing jointly, $63,000 if head of household, or $47,025 if filing as single or married filing separately.
  • 15% tax rate if they fall above the 0% threshold but below $583,750 if married filing jointly, $551,350 if head of household, $518,900 if single, or $291,850 if married filing separately.
  • 20% tax rate if they fall above the 15% threshold.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)

The AMT exemption amount is increased to:

  • $85,700 for single people and people filing as head of household,
  • $133,300 for married people filing jointly, and
  • $66,650 for married people filing separately.

Annual Gift Tax Exclusion

For 2024 the annual exclusion for gifts will be $18,000.

Estate Tax

The estate tax exclusion is increased to $13,610,000 per decedent.

Pass-Through Business Income

With respect to the 20% deduction for qualified pass-through income, for 2024, the threshold amount at which the “specified service trade or business” phaseout and the wage (or wage+property) limitations begin to kick in will be $383,900 for married taxpayers filing jointly and $191,950 for single taxpayers, people filing as head of household, and for married people filing separately.

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"

What’s the Best Time of Year for a Roth Conversion?

A reader writes in, asking:

“I do not believe in market timing and my approach of regular investing over the years without selling has been very successful. However, when you make a Roth conversion, within the year you are market timing.

From what I understand, I can tell my broker whatever date I desire to have my Roth conversion be effective. They will then send me a 1099 indicating the market value on the conversion date. The market value is then treated as taxable income on my federal and state returns.

However, within the year when I will be making my conversion, the market value of my retirement account could fluctuate materially. Should I do the conversion as early in the year as possible to give the longest time for tax free growth? Should I watch interest rates and make the conversion when rates come down? Or should I try to convert in portions throughout the year?

The additional tax caused by poor timing could be significant. I have not seen any discussion of this issue and I thought, in addition to me, it might be of interest to other readers.”

If the dollars that would be used to pay the tax would be coming out of the IRA itself, and the tax rate would be the same at different points during the year, then it doesn’t matter at all when during the year the conversion is done. Returns, whether positive or negative, as well as the payment of tax, are both multiplication functions. And the commutative property of multiplication tells us that we can do those multiplications in any order and end up with the same result. (That’s the rule from grade school math that tells us that A x B x C is the same as C x B x A.)

The tax rate might not be the same though, at different points during the year. For example, imagine that, on January 1, you have $50,000 in an IRA that consists of 1,000 shares of a particular mutual fund. If you convert the whole IRA on January 1, it would be $50,000 of income. Now imagine that, on March 1, those same 1,000 shares happen to be worth only $35,000. It’s possible that the actual tax rate would be different on an additional $50,000 of income rather than an additional $35,000 of income.

If the dollars that would be used to pay the tax on the conversion would be coming out of taxable accounts, then you’re effectively using taxable dollars to “buy more” Roth dollars. And the lower the share price on the date of conversion, the more effectively you are using your taxable dollars.

Overall point being, if you somehow knew in advance which day of the year would have the very lowest market value, that would be the best day to convert, because a) you might be able to pay a lower rate on the conversion (or a portion of the conversion), and b) if you’re using taxable dollars to pay the tax, those taxable dollars will go further, in terms of being able to pay for a larger number of shares being converted.

But, of course, there’s no reliable way to do that.  No way to know when we’ll see the lowest market levels in a given year.

On average — because investments generally go up in value over time — earlier in the year will likely be a better “deal” than later in the year. Conceptually, this is the same as the question of lump-sum vs dollar cost averaging. That is, the earlier in the year you do it, the more growth you would be expected to take advantage of. Though whether it actually plays out that way in any particular year has a large chunk of randomness involved.

There is an important counterpoint though, with regard to conversions. Early in the year, many of the other numbers on your tax return may not yet be known. For instance, in January, you may find that it’s very hard to predict how much earned income, interest income, dividend income, or capital gain distributions from mutual funds you’ll have over the course of the year. Waiting until later in the year can make it much easier to try to target a specific income threshold with the conversion (e.g., staying just below a given IMRAA threshold or staying within a given tax bracket).

On the whole, I think for most people it makes most sense to wait until later in the year, given the uncertainty about all the tax planning inputs.

If, however, you find that you can pretty reliably predict most of the inputs on your tax return (e.g., you’re retired, so you know your earned income will be zero, and you find that your dividend income is pretty reliable each year), converting earlier in the year can make sense. Or, if at some point during the year you happen to notice a major market decline, you could go ahead and do a conversion at that time. (Though of course you’d have to accept the fact that you may be missing out on an even better opportunity that could arise a few days/weeks/months later. There’s just no way to know.)

Related reading:

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"

The 4 Effects of a Roth Conversion

We’ve talked quite a bit about Roth conversions over the years. (For instance, see: Roth Conversion Rules FAQ, Roth Conversion Planning: A Step-By-Step Approach, and Roth Conversion Analysis: Not Breakeven Analysis.) Yet they are still one of the topics that comes up most frequently in questions from readers.

So what follows are the four primary things I think about when evaluating a potential Roth conversion — the four primary ways in which a Roth conversion can change a household’s trajectory.

Effect #1: Pay Tax Now Instead of Later

The first effect of a Roth conversion is that you pay tax now (on the conversion) instead of later (i.e., whenever the money would come out of the account later, if you don’t convert it right now). This is the effect that gets the most discussion because it’s the most obvious one and because it is the only effect of the four that is always applicable.

This first effect can be helpful or harmful. It’s helpful if the tax rate you pay on the conversion is lower than the tax rate that would have been paid later. And it’s harmful if the tax rate paid on the conversion is higher than the tax rate that would have been paid later.

With regard to this first effect, there are two important subtleties to keep in mind:

Effect #2: Using Taxable Dollars to “Buy More” Roth Dollars

The second effect of a Roth conversion occurs when you get to use taxable dollars (i.e., non-retirement-account dollars) to pay the tax on the conversion. If applicable, this effect generally is beneficial, though how beneficial it is varies from one household to another. Some relevant factors would include:

  •  The length of time that the money will stay in the Roth. (That is, how long do you get to benefit from the tax-free growth that the dollars will now experience, because they’re no longer in a taxable account?) This could be “time until you spend the dollars.” Or it could be “time until the dollars have to come out of the account as distributions to heirs” (in which case your age and health would be major factors).
  • What rate of return you anticipate earning on the assets and how that return is broken down in terms of interest/dividends/price appreciation.
  • The tax rate(s) you would have to pay on that return (and when you would have to pay it), if the assets stayed in a taxable account.
  • What (if any) tax cost must be incurred as a result of selling the taxable assets in question now in order to use that money to pay the tax on the conversion.

Of course, if you don’t have significant assets in taxable accounts (and you would therefore be using dollars from the traditional IRA to pay the tax on the conversion), this effect is not applicable.

Effect #3: Smaller RMDs (Less Future Tax Drag)

The third effect of a Roth conversion is that it reduces your later RMDs (because Roth IRAs don’t have RMDs during the original owner’s lifetime), thereby reducing future tax drag if you aren’t spending (or donating) your RMD dollars.

To be clear, we’re not talking here about the tax paid on the RMDs themselves. That would fall under effect #1. What we’re talking about here is that, after an RMD is taken, if the money is just reinvested in a taxable brokerage account, it will incur taxes on any further growth. (And, critically, that tax would not occur if a conversion were done, because the dollars would be in a Roth IRA.)

This effect of a conversion can never be harmful. Though, as with effect #2, it might not apply. RMDs are (in a several way tie for) the most tax-efficient dollars to spend every year. If you’re going to spend (or QCD) your entire RMD every year, this effect is a zero because the dollars aren’t getting reinvested in a taxable account.

Other relevant factors that influence the size of effect #3 include:

  • The length of time that the money would be in a taxable brokerage account (rather than a Roth IRA) after taking the RMD. Of note, unlike with effect #2 above, your current age is not a factor here unless you’re already age 72, because this effect by definition does not begin until age 72. Your health is a major factor though.
  • What rate of return you anticipate earning on the assets and how that return is broken down in terms of interest/dividends/price appreciation.
  • The tax rate(s) you would have to pay on that return (and when you would have to pay it), if the assets stayed in a taxable account.

Effect #4: Fewer Dollars Appearing on the Balance Sheet

The fourth effect of a Roth conversion is that you now have fewer total dollars. For example, there might now be $75,000 in a Roth IRA whereas before there was $100,000 in a traditional IRA.

For most people, this doesn’t matter at all. But it is helpful for anybody whose estate will be subject to an estate tax. (Given the current federal estate tax exclusion amount, few people have to worry about federal estate tax. But 12 states, as well as Washington DC, have estate taxes, many of which kick in at significantly lower thresholds.)

So like effects #2 and #3, this effect will be irrelevant for many households, whereas it will be helpful for others. (I’m not aware of any ways in which it would be harmful.)

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"

How Do I Calculate My Income Tax Refund?

The following is an excerpt from my book Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less.

Many taxpayers in the U.S. have come to expect a sizable refund check every tax season. To some people who don’t prepare their own tax returns, it’s a mystery how the refund is calculated.

The idea is really quite simple. After calculating your taxable income, you use the information in the tax tables to determine your total income tax for the year. This amount is then compared to the amount that you actually paid throughout the year (in the form of withholdings from your paychecks). If the amount you paid is more than your tax, you are entitled to a refund for the difference. If the amount you paid is less than your tax, it’s time to get out the checkbook.

Withholding: Why It’s Done

If you work as an employee, you’re certainly aware that a large portion of your wages/salary doesn’t actually show up in your paycheck every two weeks. Instead, it gets “withheld.”

The reason for this withholding is that the federal government wants to be absolutely sure that its gets its money. The government knows that many people have a tendency to spend literally all of the income they receive (if not more). As a result, the government set up the system so that it would get its share before taxpayers would have a chance to spend it.

The amount of your pay that gets withheld is based upon an estimate of how much tax you’ll be responsible for paying over the course of the year. (This is why you are required to fill out Form W-4, providing your employer with some tax-related information, when you start a new job.)

Withholding: How It’s Calculated

At this point you may be thinking, “OK. Well I’m in the __% tax bracket, and it’s obvious that my employer is withholding way more than that!”

You’re probably right. That’s because your employer isn’t just withholding for federal income tax. They’re also withholding for Social Security tax, Medicare tax, and (likely) state income tax.

The Social Security tax is calculated as 6.2% of your earnings, and the Medicare tax is calculated as 1.45% of your earnings. Before you’ve even begun to pay your income taxes, 7.65% of your income has been withheld.

Your refund is determined by comparing your total income tax to the amount that was withheld for federal income tax. Assuming that the amount withheld for federal income tax was greater than your income tax for the year, you will receive a refund for the difference.

EXAMPLE: Nick’s total taxable income (after subtracting deductions) is $32,000. He is single. Using the 2023 tax table for single taxpayers, we can determine that his federal income tax is $3,620.

Over the course of the year, Nick’s employer withheld a total of $8,500 from his pay, of which $4,000 went toward federal income tax. His refund will be $380 (i.e., $4,000 minus $3,620).

Simple Summary

  • Every year, your refund is calculated as the amount withheld for federal income tax, minus your total federal income tax for the year.
  • A large portion of the money being withheld from each of your paychecks does not actually go toward federal income tax. Instead, it goes to pay the Social Security tax, the Medicare tax, and possibly state income tax.

For More Information, See My Related Book:

Book3Cover

Taxes Made Simple: Income Taxes Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Topics Covered in the Book:
  • The difference between deductions and credits,
  • Itemized deductions vs. the standard deduction,
  • Several money-saving deductions and credits and how to make sure you qualify for them,
  • Click here to see the full list.

A testimonial from a reader on Amazon:

"Very easy to read and is a perfect introduction for learning how to do your own taxes. Mike Piper does an excellent job of demystifying complex tax sections and he presents them in an enjoyable and easy to understand way. Highly recommended!"
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