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Getting out of the Market in Retirement?

A reader writes in, asking:

“An acquaintance emailed recently to ask input on her portfolio. She said her ultimate goal is to get out of the stock market. This woman and her husband are both retired and in their early 70s I think, with no extreme wealth. I assume they are comfortable enough but live simply and likely need to watch expenses.

When I asked what her concerns were about the market, she replied ‘political objections, volatility, ignorance..lack of control..risk aversion..Would consider investing in something I could believe in..’

Can you point me to any resources (articles, books, charts) that clearly explain why getting out of the market probably isn’t a good idea?

Any thoughts about how to respond to something like this?”

The idea of getting in and out of the stock market necessitates a belief that the market is predictable in the short-term. And it is not.

People are always looking for ways to predict short-term market movements — a reliable such method is basically the holy grail of investing. Of course, nobody ever finds it. For example, here is a well known study that looked at over 5,000 different trading rules and found that they “do not add value beyond what may be expected by chance.”

The best stock market predictor I am aware of is the concept of valuations (which can be measured in an assortment of related ways). It’s useful (though not at all perfect) for longer-term predictions, but essentially useless for short-term predictions. Here’s a recent article from Larry Swedroe on that topic.

But a separate question is whether a retiree might want to permanently get out of the stock market (i.e., not attempting to move back and forth between stocks and bonds at advantageous times, but rather simply electing to have a permanent 0% allocation to stocks).

And that isn’t necessarily such a bad idea, depending on circumstances. Many experts think it’s entirely reasonable (wise even) to prioritize building a sufficient pool of safe assets to fund retirement before allocating any part of a retirement-stage portfolio to stocks.

For example, the following two quotes come from Bill Bernstein’s book The Ages of the Investor.

“As one approaches the end of one’s human capital and hopefully has accumulated enough investment capital to safely offset the expense of retirement living, it makes little sense to put at risk the funds earmarked for retirement living expenses. In other words, once the game has been won by accumulating enough safe assets to retire on, it makes little sense to keep playing it, at least with the ‘number’: the pile of safe assets sufficient to directly provide or indirectly purchase an adequate lifetime income stream.”

“If, at any point, a bull market pushes your portfolio over the LMP [liability matching portfolio] ‘magic number’ of 20 to 25 times your annual cash-flow needs beyond Social Security and pensions, you’ve won the investing game. Why keep playing? Start bailing. After you’ve put enough TIPS, plain vanilla Treasuries, and CDs into your mental LMP, you’re free to start adding again to your RP [risk portfolio].”

Or as many people have quoted him since: “if you’ve won the game, why keep playing?”

When comparing various stock/bond allocations, this 2015 paper/article from Wade Pfau may be of interest. In that paper, we can see that once we look at horizons greater than 20 years, it becomes clear that having some stocks is helpful relative to an all-bond portfolio, in the sense that those stocks will reduce the likelihood of running out of money.

But there are important caveats:

  • Probability of portfolio depletion is not the only relevant metric here. In the failure scenarios, we don’t just care that a failure occurred (i.e., portfolio was depleted), we want to know when it occurred. That is, in the scenarios in which the portfolio is depleted prior to death, it makes a big difference to the retiree whether the depletion occurred 15 years into retirement or 25 years into retirement. And a risky allocation can result in depleting the portfolio sooner than would be the case with a super safe allocation.
  • If the goal is just to maximize spending over their lifetimes in as safe a way as possible, a boring (likely inflation-adjusted) joint lifetime annuity is probably the best tool for the job rather than stocks.

With regard to that first caveat, this paper from Joe Tomlinson may be of interest.

Key questions that could help determine how much of their portfolio should be annuitized (and how to allocate the non-annuitized portfolio) would be:

  1. What type of health are they in (i.e., what type of planning horizon is necessary)?
  2. How much (what percentage of the portfolio) is the couple hoping to spend per year?
  3. How flexible is the answer to #2?
  4. How strong is their “bequest motive” (i.e., desire to leave behind money to heirs)?

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