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When Are IRAs Aggregated?

A reader writes in, asking:

“I have read that your traditional IRAs are all considered one IRA as far as the IRS is concerned. But I recently found another article that explicitly indicated otherwise. Maybe it depends on circumstances? Could you elaborate on this in an article?”

The issue is not so much that it depends on circumstances, but rather that IRAs are aggregated for some purposes and not for other purposes.

Traditional IRAs Aggregated for RMDs

For RMD purposes, all of your traditional IRAs will be treated as if they are one collective traditional IRA. Specifically, each traditional IRA will have its RMD calculated separately, but then you can total up all your necessary traditional IRA RMDs for the year and take that total amount out of any one traditional IRA or any combination of traditional IRAs.

Note that SEP IRAs and SIMPLE IRAs count as traditional IRAs here, so they are aggregated as well.

Employer-sponsored plans are not aggregated with your IRAs though (nor are they aggregated with each other). For example, a distribution from your 401(k) will not count toward satisfying your traditional IRA RMD for the year.

Traditional IRAs Aggregated for Distribution/Conversion Taxability

Similarly, when you take a distribution from a traditional IRA — or do a Roth conversion from a traditional IRA — whether or not it is taxable will depend on an aggregated calculation.

Example: Joan has made $20,000 of nondeductible contributions to her traditional IRA at Vanguard. During 2020, Joan makes a $40,000 Roth conversion from that IRA. At the end of the year, the balance in Joan’s Vanguard traditional IRA is $100,000. She also has a traditional IRA at Schwab with a year-end balance of $60,000. She has taken no other distributions (or done any other conversions) from these IRAs.

The nontaxable portion of Joan’s conversion is calculated as her basis in traditional IRAs (i.e., the amount of nondeductible contributions she has made), divided by the sum of her year-end balances and distributions or conversions from traditional IRAs over the course of the year. (And again, we’re counting all of her traditional IRAs here.)

Joan’s basis is $20,000. The sum of her year-end traditional IRA balances is $160,000. And the sum of her conversions and other distributions from traditional IRAs for the year is $40,000. So the nontaxable portion of Joan’s conversion is calculated as: $20,000 / ($160,000 + $40,000) = 10%. In other words, 90% of Joan’s conversion will be taxable.

IRAs Not Aggregated for “SEPP” Distributions

IRAs are not aggregated for the “series of substantially equal periodic payments” rule, sometimes referred to as 72(t). For that purpose, each traditional IRA is treated as its own separate account.

Aggregation for Roth IRA 5-Year Rule

With regard to the 5-year rule for distributions of earnings from Roth IRAs, once you have satisfied the 5-year rule for one Roth IRA, you have satisfied it for all Roth IRAs.

Inherited IRAs Not Aggregated

Inherited IRAs are not aggregated with other IRAs for RMD purposes, nor are inherited IRAs aggregated with other IRAs for the purpose of calculating what portion of a distribution (or conversion) is taxable.

Inherited IRAs can be aggregated with each other for RMD purposes if the inherited IRAs in question a) were originally owned by the same person and b) are being distributed over the same period (i.e., if the inherited IRAs are being distributed over somebody’s life expectancy, it must be the same life expectancy that is being used for each inherited IRA if you want to aggregate them with each other for RMD purposes).

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